uefa-stadium-lighting-guide-2016-part-5

UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 5)

145 Published by admin 07 28,2018

Do you want to know how to keep LED lights maintenance cost be minimized?
Do you want to have high lumen output, super brightness high power LED sports lights?
Do you want to a powerful supplier can provide a whole series service including solution, lights, cable, poles and so on?
Do you still worry the spillover light affect the surrounding of sports lighting?
Do you still worry will stadium lighting have a strong glare affecting the game?
Do you worry about a floodlight with a 4D radiator and the largest heat dissipation area in a high temperature outdoor environment?
UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 1)
UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 2)
UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 3)
UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 4)
UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 5)
UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 6)
UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 7)
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Player shadows

Artificial shadows on the pitch caused by floodlighting systems detract from visual clarity for both spectators and television broadcasters. The shadows impinge upon the viewing experience and should be eliminated where possible or reduced to soft shadows.
During the pitch illuminance design process, it is important to evaluate the production of player shadows and eliminate any hard shadows. This will generally be done by using multiple light sources from various locations for each area of the pitch. This will mean that shadows are reduced and players will benefit from good illuminance modelling around their entire bodies. This will be essential to provide the adequate vertical illuminance and uniformity on all planes.
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The image above demonstrates the impact of player shadows on a football pitch.
In some stadiums, the existing infrastructure will mean that a four-corner tower/column floodlighting system is the only viable option in terms of the pitch lighting design. Corner tower illuminance systems will generally produce hard shadows, which will vary in different areas of the pitch. With this type of installation, it is not possible to produce consistently soft shadows.
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The image above is an example of the soft shadows created by an effective solution involving multiple light sources from different locations.
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The image above is an example of hard shadows in the goal area. Shadows should be reduced where possible, while ensuring that players are not hindered by discomfort glare.

Maintenance factor

The average illuminance values required by the tables in Section 4 should be achieved during matches. However, a maintenance factor is used to take account the depreciation of luminous flux caused by the ageing and soiling of the light sources, reflectors and front glasses. In the absence of any other information, the maintenance factor indicated in the relevant table in Section 4 should be used.
However, it is possible to modify that maintenance factor if relevant information is available and systems are in place that facilitate a calculated alteration to that value for a given project.
Reasons to alter the maintenance factor are provided below:
– A proactive and frequent maintenance programme. This would require the implementation of a comprehensive and documented schedule of lamp replacement, luminaire cleaning, voltage regulation and illuminance testing. Most stadium pitch illuminance systems would not be suitable for this kind of very proactive maintenance.
– Luminaires that use LED technology. The rate of lumen depreciation is very low with this technology. In order to alter the maintenance factor, a documented schedule of work including luminaire cleaning, voltage regulation and illuminance testing should be implemented. It is not recommended to increase the maintenance factor beyond a value of 0.90 when using LED luminaires in normal circumstances.
– Lumen depreciation may be compensated for by the use of ‘constant illumination lamp technology’. This system would need to be available and supported by the luminaire manufacturer, with documented analysis of the pitch illuminance system’s performance with voltage regulation. It would also be necessary to provide a schedule of lamp replacement, luminaire cleaning, voltage regulation and illuminance testing.
– If the stadium environment is subject to harsh weather conditions or airborne dirt that could affect the long-term performance of the luminaires, it will be necessary to lower the maintenance factor to an appropriate level. In such circumstances, a study should be carried out to evaluate the conditions. A typical maintenance factor in the above circumstances might be 0.70 or 0.75.

Power supply

It is essential that the power supply for the pitch illuminance system is reliable to ensure that matches and television broadcasts can continue without disruption. A suitable alternative back-up power supply is required in case the primary source fails in some way. A power supply evaluation is required by UEFA for all existing stadiums. For newly built stadiums, it is recommended that the power supply system is designed to meet the requirements stipulated for the relevant UEFA illuminance level.
The following points apply to all levels:
i The primary power source is the main power source for the pitch illuminance system – generally the national grid.
ii The secondary power source is the alternative power source used as a back-up supply in case the main power source fails – generally an on-site generator.
iii The two power supplies should be completely independent of each other, with one system not reliant on the other to operate.
iv In the event of disruption to the primary power supply, the secondary power supply should be engaged automatically, with no disruption to the pitch illuminance system or other stadium facilities.
v The disruption caused by lighting systems switching to a different power supply will vary depending on the duration of the power disruption and the type of floodlight luminaire. If the primary power supply is disconnected and the secondary power supply is engaged with immediate effect, it may take up to 10–15 minutes before a discharge lighting system is fully operational. This is due to the time required for lamps to cool down before re-striking and then running up to full colour temperature. To ensure pitch illuminance continues without disruption, a UPS system is often used in the pitch illuminance power system.
vi If the primary power source fails, the secondary power source must be fully operational within the specified period of time.
vii After the initial power failure, the pitch illuminance system must operate at the illuminance level stipulated for the relevant level.
viii After the initial power failure, the illuminance system must be operational at the required level within 12 minutes.
ix Once the pitch illuminance system is being powered by the secondary power supply, it is necessary to ensure that the primary power supply can only be re-engaged manually. This will
ensure that any further disruption is minimised and controlled.
The specific power supply requirements for each UEFA illuminance level are listed in the tables on the following pages.

UEFA power supply requirements – elite level A

i Primary power source Meets 100% of
requirements
at 100% duty cycle
ii Secondary power source Meets 100% of
requirements
at 100% duty cycle
iii Primary power supply completely independent from
secondary power supply?
Yes
iv Automatic switching between the two power supplies in
the event that one power source fails?
Yes
v Disruption to the pitch illuminance system caused by
failure of the primary power source before the match
continuity illuminance conditions are operational
No disruption permitted
vi Uninterrupted illuminance conditions (as specified in
point vii) without disruption after the primary power
supply fails?
Yes
vii Illuminance conditions maintained after the primary
power supply fails
Minimum of Eh 1,000 lux
Minimum of Ev4 600 lux
viii Illuminance conditions re-established within 12 minutes 100% of normal match
illuminance conditions
required
ix Manually controlled operation to re-engage primary
power supply after power disruption?
Yes

UEFA power supply requirements – level A

i Primary power source Meets 100% of
requirements
at 100% duty cycle
ii Secondary power source Meets 100% of
requirements
at 100% duty cycle
iii Primary power supply completely independent from
secondary power supply?
Yes
iv Automatic switching between the two power supplies in
the event that one power source fails?
Yes
v Disruption to the pitch illuminance system caused by
failure of the primary power source before the match
continuity illuminance conditions are operational
No disruption permitted
vi Uninterrupted illuminance conditions (as specified in
point vii) without disruption after the primary power
supply fails?
Yes
vii Illuminance conditions maintained after the primary
power supply fails
Minimum of Eh 800 lux
Minimum of Ev4 500 lux
viii Illuminance conditions re-established within 12 minutes 100% of normal match
illuminance conditions
required
ix Manually controlled operation to re-engage primary
power supply after power disruption?
Yes

UEFA power supply requirements – level B

i Primary power source Meets 100% of
requirements
at 100% duty cycle
ii Secondary power source Meets > 70% of
requirements
at 100% duty cycle
iii Primary power supply completely independent from
secondary power supply?
Yes
iv Automatic switching between the two power supplies in
the event that one power source fails?
Yes – or effective and
approved manual
procedure
v Disruption time caused by failure of the primary power
source before the secondary power supply is fully
operational
Three minutes permitted
vi Uninterrupted illuminance conditions (as specified in
point vii) without disruption after the primary power
supply fails?
No
vii Illuminance conditions re-established within three
minutes
Minimum of Eh 400 lux
Minimum of Ev4 300 lux
viii Illuminance conditions re-established within 12 minutes Minimum of 70% of
normal match illuminance
conditions
ix Manually controlled operation to re-engage primary
power supply after power disruption?
Yes

UEFA power supply requirements – level C

i Primary power source Meets 100% of
requirements
at 100% duty cycle
ii Secondary power source Meets > 50% of
requirements
at 100% duty cycle
iii Primary power supply completely independent from
secondary power supply?
Yes
iv Automatic switching between the two power supplies in
the event that one power source fails?
Yes – or effective and
approved manual
procedure
v Disruption time caused by failure of the primary power
source before the secondary power supply is fully
operational
15 minutes permitted
vi Uninterrupted illuminance conditions (as specified in
point vii) without disruption after the primary power
supply fails?
No
vii Illuminance conditions re-established within three
minutes
Minimum of Eh 350 lux
viii Illuminance conditions re-established within 12 minutes Minimum of 50% of
normal match illuminance
conditions
ix Manually controlled operation to re-engage primary
power supply after power disruption?
Yes

UEFA power supply requirements – level D

i Primary power source Meets 100% of
requirements
at 100% duty cycle
ii Secondary power source -
iii Primary power supply completely independent from
secondary power supply?
-
iv Automatic switching between the two power supplies in
the event that one power source fails?
-
v Disruption time caused by failure of the primary power
source before the secondary power supply is fully
operational
-
vi Uninterrupted illuminance conditions (as specified in
point vii) without disruption after the primary power
supply fails?
-
vii Illuminance conditions re-established within three
minutes
-
viii Illuminance conditions re-established within 12 minutes -
ix Manually controlled operation to re-engage primary
power supply after power disruption?
-

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