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Do you still worry the spillover light affect the surrounding of sports lighting?
Do you still worry will stadium lighting have a strong glare affecting the game?
Do you worry about a floodlight with a 4D radiator and the largest heat dissipation area in a high temperature outdoor environment?
UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 1)
UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 2)
UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 3)
UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 4)
UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 5)
UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 6)
UEFA Stadium Lighting Guide 2016 (Part 7)
Illuminance flicker is commonly eliminated by installing electronic control ballasts or square wave form ballasts in the illuminance system. This technology can generally be added to existing installations, as well as being available for new installations.
The flicker that is observed with very high numbers of frames per second can also be eliminated using computer processing. However, this method has other limitations.
The level of flicker that is considered acceptable is indicated in the tables in Section 4.
|FF value (guide only)|
(flicker dependent on the type of LED power
with 100% electronic ballasts
|Discharge lamps with
magnetic ballasts spread uniformly across
three-phase power supply
|Discharge lamps with
magnetic ballasts on single-phase
Pitch illuminance systems that use standard-frequency ballasts with typical sine wave luminance modulation characteristics will produce a wide range of flicker factor test results. This is due to the variation at test points in the overlapping of luminous flux from different luminaires at different angles. With careful planning, it may be possible to design the luminaire focus points for all areas and planes of the pitch to receive overlapping luminous flux from luminaires at different angles. This may produce substantial improvements and may meet UEFA’s requirements for level B and level C stadiums.
Although the above method may produce substantial improvements, it will not meet the requirements for level A Elite stadiums without additional solutions to reduce the modulation of luminance. A mixture of electronic or square wave ballasts with standard-frequency sine wave ballasts may produce a flicker factor below 5%. This system will be more successful in larger installations where a greater number of luminaires are available to provide overlapping luminous flux coming from different angles.
A pitch illuminance system that involves overlapping luminous flux coming from different angles should use a greater number of flicker factor test points to ensure that the flicker factor values are consistent in all areas.
It is recommended that 24 test points are used.
Measures used to reduce the flicker factor should not impinge upon the uniformity of illuminance on any plane.
It is possible to measure the flicker factor at a specific stadium to provide a precise evaluation. The assessment should be carried out by a competent technician with a suitable meter. That meter should be recalibrated on an annual basis.
The flicker factor test should be conducted as indicated.
At each of the six positions indicated in Section 10.8, a vertical flicker factor reading should be taken at a height of 1m on the 90° and 270° planes.
The 12-point average is calculated by dividing the sum of those 12 values by 12.
The maximum flicker factor value is the highest measured value of the 12 points.
The maximum permitted flicker factor is listed below for each UEFA level.
|Elite level A|
|12 or 24-point average < 5%|
|Maximum value <5%|
|12 or 24-point average||< 12%|
|Maximum value||< 15%|
|12-point average||< 12%|
|Maximum value||< 15%|
|12-point average||< 20%|
|Maximum value||< 30%|
When testing stadiums, it is necessary to establish the type of illuminance system that is in operation. This will tell us what type of test should be used to ensure that the flicker factor is measured correctly. If the entire illuminance system comprises HID lamps with electronic ballasts, or if the luminaires are LEDs, the flicker factor can reasonably be expected to be constant in all areas of the pitch. In such cases, a 12-point test would be appropriate for the type of lighting technology in operation.
However, if the pitch illuminance system has a mixture of standard-frequency and high-frequency ballasts and may be reliant on overlapping luminous flux from luminaires at different angles, it will be necessary to perform a more rigorous flicker factor test. In this case, a 24-point flicker factor test should be used.
At each of the 12 positions indicated in Section 10.9, a vertical flicker factor reading should be taken at a height of 1m on the 90° and 270° planes.
The 24-point average is calculated by dividing the sum of the 24 measured values by 24.
The maximum flicker factor value is the highest measured single value at any given test points.
Any rapid change in the illuminance level on a given plane will cause camera exposure inconsistencies. During a fast-moving football match, it is unrealistic to expect the camera settings to be changed successfully on a consistent basis when the camera and the subject are both moving rapidly. The MAUR is used to ensure greater consistency in terms of camera exposure and thus greater freedom for the camera operator to provide dynamic pictures. The difference between the illuminance values of any two adjacent points on any given plane in any direction should be no greater than the permitted level stipulated in the tables in Section 4. That requirement takes the form of a minimum permissible ratio between the two points.
The diagram below shows the secondary reference points that are considered in relation to a primary reference point. In this case, the primary reference point is 28, and the secondary reference points are 16, 29, 40 and 27.
Level A stadium – MAUR evaluation
Reference point 28 on horizontal plane
Reference point 28 – Eh = 2,325 lux
MAUR > 0.60
The illuminance value at the secondary reference points 16, 29, 40 and 27 on the horizontal plane must be greater than 2,325 x 0.60 = 1,395 lux.
The MAUR requirements are the same for all five planes. Each plane should be considered separately. In the example below, reference point 69 is considered on the vertical plane for a level C stadium.
Level C stadium – MAUR evaluation
Reference point 69 on the 270° vertical plane
Reference point 69 – Ev-270° = 1,548 lux
MAUR > 0.50
The illuminance value at the secondary reference points 57, 70, 81 and 68 on the 270° vertical plane must be greater than 1,548 x 0.50 = 774 lux.
‘Colour temperature’ describes the feeling or appearance of how warm (red) or cool (blue) a certain type of illumination appears to be. It is measured in kelvins (K).
Digital camera technology allows video-produced media to be altered to ‘gain’ colour and contrast, as required to produce the desired colour quality. The required colour temperature range varies depending on the stadium illuminance level, with the minimum and maximum levels across all levels being 4,200K and 6,200K respectively.
It is often necessary to start the broadcasting of a football match in daylight and finish with all the pitch illuminance provided by the floodlighting system. On these occasions, the artificial lighting should generally be used at the beginning of the broadcast to allow a gradual change from daylight to artificial illuminance. During this period, the broadcast engineers will be able to make minor adjustments to the camera settings as required.
The diagram below provides a guide to the colour temperature range required for UEFA stadiums.
Colour rendering, which is expressed as a score between 0 and 100 Ra on the Colour Rendering Index (CRI), describes how a light source makes the colour of an object appear to human eyes and how well subtle variations in colour shades are revealed. The higher the CRI rating, the better the colour rendering.
UEFA’s requirements stipulate that for good colour production by the artificial illumination system, the CRI rating needs to be ≥ 80 for level A and level B stadiums, ≥ 70 for level C stadiums and ≥ 65 for level D stadiums.
The following diagram provides test information of chromaticity values and should be used as a guide to what is required for all new and old UEFA stadiums:
Chromaticity values of lamp performance
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