Fencing is a sport, where athletes wearing fencing clothing and protective gear, in the fencing field with a sword to stab each other, when first hit the effective parts of the body, namely the hit one sword. There are a variety of offensive and defensive techniques, and the rules allow a variety of tactics to win.
Fencing competitions are divided into saber, foil and epee. There are individual and group competitions for each. Group competition is an inter-team encounter competition for each team. The individual competition adopts the group round robin competition first, and then carries on the single defeat elimination competition according to the index ranking of the group results. The knockout game is 3 minutes per game, and the total number of hits is accumulated. The winner who hits 15 swords first will win.Group competition is based on individual results, direct to a single elimination game.
When designing the stadium lighting, the fencing hall has the highest requirement for lighting. Due to its special nature of competition, the light quality of the venues is very high, otherwise it will affect the performance of the athletes.
|Level||Sports classification||illuminance||uniformity of illuminance||light source||Glare rating|
|Eh||Evmai||Evsec||Horizontal||Horizontal||vertical||vertical||CRI (Ra)||color temperature(K)||GR|
|2||Non-competition, entertainment activities||300||_||_||0.4||0.6||_||_||65||4000||<40|
|3||Amateur domestic competition||500||_||_||0.5||0.7||_||_||65||4000||<40|
|4||Professional domestic competition||750||_||_||0.5||0.7||_||_||65||4000||<40|
|5||TV relay domestic competition||_||1000||750||0.4||0.6||0.3||0.5||65||4000||<40|
|6||TV relay international competition||_||1500||1000||0.6||0.7||0.4||0.6||65（best: 80）||4000||<40|
It is difficult to broadcast fencing matches on TV, because fencers are more likely to start suddenly and get out quickly, making it harder to capture such a fast movement on TV. And fencing requires a dark background, so that spectators at the scene and in front of the TV can clearly see the fast movements of the fencers in white and the sharp steel. The most important thing for a fencer is to have an even horizontal illumination. For the camera, there should be enough vertical illumination on the surface parallel to the platform. The vertical illumination on the opposite side of the main camera should be at least 1/2 the side of the main camera, which provides good depth of play and helps the referee to see the movements of the players. The fencer’s helmet creates a special kind of reflected light, the light will potentially be shot into the athlete’s eye.
Fencing ground is a relatively small area, so fencing hall lighting design can have the characteristics of stage lighting design, but it is definitely not stage lighting, and there is no need to adjust the light. Light fixtures should be arranged along both sides of long platform, aiming point is on long platform, aiming angle is between 50~60 degrees. This minimizes the reflected light from the helmet. The light fixtures on one side of the main camera should be twice the distance to the opposite side.
1.Although the lighting design of fencing competition is mainly to ensure the maximum visual comfort of athletes, it should also create a suitable environment on the overall level to make the TV picture theme vivid.
2.Minimum height of lighting installation should be 4 meters above the venue.
3.Angle of sight of light fixtures should be less than or equal to 65 degrees.
4.The lighting equipment should meet the requirements of the studio, and the glare control equipment should meet the requirements of the purpose.
5.Lighting should not be installed above the playing field or within 20 degrees of the centre line of the playing field.
6.Lighting should be installed within a range of 60 degrees ( with the centre of the field perpendicular to each other at a 30-degree angle ) to prevent glare.
7.All lighting equipment should not be aimed directly at the camera, preferably not in a 50-degree cone with the camera as the vertex.
8.When installing lighting equipment, the reflected light on the ground of the playing field should not reach the camera.
9.If a large camera is placed in an area defined by a horizontal line of 25 degrees from either side of the horizontal angle of illumination, there are two situations :
1) vertical angle of the horizontal plane through the lighting equipment and camera is 25 degrees.
2) the aiming angle of lighting equipment is greater than 40 degrees.
Then the lighting position and angle of aim should be designed to make that the light area of the bulb does not enter the camera’s view.
10.The light should arrive at any point in the field from at least three directions. In the case of a large camera, the light from the third direction should be “backlit” by the light from one or two other directions
11.The ratio of luminous flux projected on one side of the main camera to the opposite side should be 50-60% .
12.There should be a clear path between any lighting equipment and any point in the entire field, without any buildings or materials in, and each piece of lighting can be clearly seen from any position on the field.
13.The control device of the lighting equipment shall not be noisy.
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